Northern Arapaho Tribe upset with upcoming event in Riverton with alleged anti-Indian group

(Riverton, Wyo.) – A letter sent to Fremont County’s elected officials from the Northern Arapaho Tribe on Thursday is filled with inaccuracies and misinformation, Riverton Mayor Ron Warpness said Friday morning. The mayor had not seen the letter nor news release until County10.com had asked him for comment this morning. A copy was provided for him to read.

The tribe, through its attorney, issued a news release expressing “dismay that the City of Riverton will host an advocacy group known for it efforts to destroy Native American tribal rights guaranteed by the U. S. Constitution,” said the lead paragraph of the news release. In an accompanying letter from the Chairman of the Northern Arapaho Business Council, Darrell O’Neal Sr., the letter inferred that the city, and Fremont County, agreed with the group’s aims because they had allowed them to meet in public facilities. The letter also alleged that the meeting of the Citizens Equal Rights Alliance, or CERA, is closed to the public, which Warpness said was not true. A flyer promoting the event, however, said neither the public nor the media would be allowed at one workshop. “It’s a public meeting space, the public cannot be barred from it,” Warpness said.

CERA has planned “a large regional conference at the Fremont County Fairgrounds on Saturday, June 14th,” and has invited elected officials, legal counsels and law enforcement to to a June 13th workshop at Riverton City Hall.

Among the topics to be discussed at the forum is the EPA decision which granted the Tribes “state status” for air quality monitoring. The EPA decision also reinstated the original boundaries of the reservation, which would place Riverton, Kinnear, Pavillion and much of the land north of Highway 26 in central Fremont County within the boundaries of the WRIR. Those areas were withdrawn by Congress in 1906. To counter the EPA ruling, the state’s congressional delegation has proposed making the 1906 withdrawal area permanent.

Riverton Mayor Ron Warpness.

Riverton Mayor Ron Warpness.

“People can use our facility for non-commercial uses,” Warpness said. “We studied this request at length and both Steven (City Administrator Steven Weaver) and myself concluded it would be good to have the discussion. And it should be noted that our Chief of Police, Mike Broadhead, advised against holding the meeting because of CERA’s reputation in the Native American Community.”

“We are concerned about the recently publicized meetings of CERA in Riverton,” O’Neal wrote. “Apparently the County and City have agreed to provide these public locations for use by CERA. ‘Citizen Sovereignty’ and other references in the CERA flyers are thinly disguised efforts to incite distrust and racial division in our communities.”

Not so, said Warpness. “I think there is obviously a great deal of misinformation in the letter. It’s hard to respond to overall, and I don’t think it is helpful to have that reaction when you have an organization purportedly trying to bring more discussion on this issue. It’s something the Tribes have always advocated, to sit down and talk and have discussion, but it appears they only want to have discussion on one side of the issue,” he said. “In any war, or debate, or disagreement, truth is the first casualty.”

In the news release, the tribe cites “commentators” who have called CERA “anti-Indian” and “hate groups,” but those commentators are not identified.

“For me, it is disappointing that Riverton’s response to the Tribe’s May 6th “Mending Fences” symposium is a divisive, anti-Indian group that spouts offensive rhetoric and legal theories blatantly distorting Native American Law,” O’Neal was quoted as saying in the release.

Warpness said he took heat from some Riverton residents for even appearing at that symposium to listen to the debate there. “I don’t know how people can have such itty bitty minds,” he said.

County10’s request for comment from the Eastern Shoshone Business Council was not immediately returned.

 

46 Comments

  1. Chato Lyday

    Kinnear and Pavilion was not part of the land ceded in 1906. Why else do the Senators hope to change the federal law? Not to help this newsites accuracy.

  2. Drew Lee

    I think the natives are getting restless and want to ignore

    http://www.citizensalliance.org/

    Found that on the internet

  3. Nancy Ebbert

    Why would any decent human being be anti air quality monitoring? In northeastern Utah babies are dying at 6x the national average, something many believe is linked to air quality. It is shameful to hear that elected officialsare more concerned with appeasing industry than the health of the people they are elected to serve.

  4. Randy Ray

    What's worse Nancy is all the people that care only for today and not what happens in the future. They will give up quality of life for future generations so that they may make a buck today. Greed will kill this nation, nothing else.

  5. Drew Lee

    Nancy, by your comment, its only native babies dying , so therefore its the air? I'd say if non-native babies born are not dying, then there must be a more "isolated" issue than air.
    Perhaps social services are needed more than monitoring bad air over Riverton in which is claimed. Perhaps better laws on the "reservation" can help save these infant lives. (just as a precaution)

  6. Ron Howard

    I'd like to get a copy of that letter for myself.

  7. Mel Arthur

    Northern Arapaho and Eastern Shoshone Tribal members need to attend this meeting, if it is open to the public our presence there will disrupt the institutionalized racism that is occurring in the county. Tribal members also need to be informed of their human rights and what they can do as a community, and as individuals. Out of the tribes 2.2 million acres that the tribe owns, the ONLY land that truly belongs to individuals who are not Arapaho or Shoshone are the individuals who received allotments at the turn of the century. At that point in time, the stipulations of this agreement where bases on a lease and a US Congressional Act that amended the allotment process. The US Government amended the allotment process because of its devastating effects. NOT wanting to diminish any more the land that had already been lost the US would make sales on behalf of the tribe. These land sales where based on the fact that the tribes would retain all land s that where not sold to individual allotments. There exist no cessation of any other land to non-tribal members. This process did not include the city of Riverton, which is the only parcel of land that was LEASED to the non-tribal members for 90 years. These are the only facts that dictate who has a right to the land North of the Big Wind River. And one of the stipulations of the lease agreement was that it would be re-negotiated with full approval of the Northern Arapaho and Eastern Shoshone tribes.

    As tribal members in the United States of America we have been forced to take what has been presented to us. Today we suffer the worst health disparities in the state of Wyoming, and among other tribes in the region. We do not want our children and our elders growing up in the sub-standard conditions that have been forced on our people. Every minority race in America can be assured that their fundamental human rights are protected through ant-discrimination laws and other policies that assure that people of different races do not have their human rights violated. I feel that the county and state of Wyoming have violated the human rights of the indigenous population in the state, and they have been encroaching on Northern Arapaho and Eastern Shoshone land for over 100 years. If the law was on their side of the non-Native people and they had the legal right to the land, they would have given us notice much sooner, and we would NOT have been able to fight for our land, today we have the opportunity to plead our case and unite for a common good in the community.

    Creating a win-win situation is imperative for creating a better community and any negotiations need to be vested in truths and acknowledgment of the historical situation. I have interviewed tribal members from both the Northern Arapaho and Eastern Shoshone tribes and they are well aware of the historical implications that surround the history in the city of Riverton, and the hatred that was spawned for the Indians in the community. We also know that there exist an inherent dislike for Native people in the community and that this had been perpetuated by complacency and disconnect. The tribes signed a legal document in agreement with the non-Natives living in the community over 100 years ago, after the allotment process was deemed a failure because it diminished the land base for the American Indian. This made it illegal to gain access to land that was set aside for the Northern Arapaho and Eastern Shoshone tribes without their consent. At the turn of the century a lease was agreed on for land to build the city of Riverton which is the only way this could have been approved at that time.

    The city of Riverton has already prospered 100 fold just because of its geographical proximity to the Wind River Indian Reservation and today tribal members want answers to the questions that have not been answered for the last century. We hear and see constant arguments at the state, county, and municipal levels about how millions of dollars in tax revenues are spent on the infrastructure of the community, yet we do not see money going toward improving the infrastructure in the reservation community. If we are to create a win-win situation the tribes need to included in all issues that are occurring on their land, and if the EPA is willing to give us a place at the table then we need to advocate for the tribal members who really matter; the children and our elders.

  8. Randy Ray

    As I understand what you have wrote, you are saying that Riverton was not ceded but leased??

  9. Randy Ray

    I would love, as would a lot of others, to see firsthand the documentation as to where you have drawn the assumptions you have. The definition to cede: to surrender or to give away. To lease:
    1.
    a. A contract granting use or occupation of property during a specified period in exchange for a specified rent.

    b. The term or duration of such a contract.

    2. Property used or occupied under the terms of such a contract.

    v.tr. leased, leas·ing, leas·es
    1. To grant use or occupation of under the terms of a contract.

    2. To get or hold by such a contract

    Again sir, please let us see documentation .

  10. Mel Arthur

    The Northern Arapaho and Eastern Shoshone tribes do not need to produce a document that proves the reservation is theirs, the US Government maps already indicate that. What actually needs to be produced is a document that states the city of Riverton has a legal right to exist in the middle of an American Indian Reservation. Is there a document that states that the tribes have relinquished this land to non-Natives in the city or county? Or does the city consider it theirs because they have lived there so long, either way, as a tribal member I feel that discrimination is alive well in the community, and there is a complete disregard for American Indian Rights.

  11. Drew Lee

    Mei, lets not be a coward about this.
    The 1905 Diminished Border Act did that.

  12. Randy Ray

    So what happened to the treaty signed in 1906? Or is that just fiction according to native americans?? You sir are stirring the pot of hate as you speak of peace. If you are from the university, you have access to all documentation to back your words. Otherwise, your words are nothing but dust blowing in the wind. My advice to you is educate yourself so as to not make yourself look foolish. Riverton has the documentation they need and you may see it in the court of law. The reason you see discrimination is alive is that people like you create it. Good day sir.

  13. Drew Lee

    Randy Ray, Yes it does get complicated.
    This is why Congress needs to clean up the "written description" of the lands in question. Rather than tell me to educate myself, why don't you read up on what the Wyoming Supreme Court ruled.

    http://rezjudicata.wordpress.com/2008/01/18/wyoming-supreme-court-rules-1905-act-diminished-wind-river-reservation/

    That will probably answer your questions – if – you're willing to accept what Chiefs "Sharpnose and Washakie" agreed to back in 1905 and finalize in "1906".
    There are claims of discrimination [towards natives] but non proven in Riverton towards natives. Otherwise, you'd post instances and court cases of the such.
    The problem with Reservations is, the Government has made the tribes codependent over the centuries.

  14. Cathi Stoecklin Finch

    In "The Riverton Ranger", Opinion Section, on March 13, 2014 is commentary from the Riverton Museum Association president: "Language is clear; Riverton townsite was removed from the reservation, with no lease". This should be read or reread for all again on this topic to give another source of information.

  15. Drew Lee

    Thanks Cathi, do you have a "url" that we can read it freely?
    Or are you willing to "copy and paste" the wording? As realistically, I'm tired of the complaints from the Rez. throwing out "unwarranted" accusations and innuendos.

  16. Drew Lee

    Language is clear; Riverton townsite was removed from the reservation, with no lease

    Mar 13, 2014 – Tess Piercy, Riverton

    Editor:

    The recent letter to the editor about a lease of the Riverton tons requires a factual response.

    Apparently, there are area residents who continue to want to believe that there was a 99-year lease by which the tribes of the Wind River Indian Reservation allowed the establishment of the municipality of Riverton, and that the lease has now expired.

    But, in fact, there never was such a lease.

    In 1904, representatives of the U.S. government met with representatives of the two tribes and negotiated an agreement by which the tribes disposed of lands north of Wind River that had been a part of the reservation. The agreement was approved by a majority of the voting male tribal members on the reservation. The agreement was forwarded to Washington, D.C., where it was rati@257;ed by the U.S. Congress in 1905.

    Both the agreement and the act as approved by Congress state:

    "The Indians belonging on the Shoshone or Wind River Reservation, Wyoming, for the consideration hereinafter named, do hereby cede, grant, and relinquish to the United States, all right, title and interest which they may have to all lands embraced within the said reservation [which lie north of the Wind River] … . In consideration of the lands ceded, granted, relinquished, and conveyed … the United States stipulates and agrees to dispose of the same … under the provisions of the homestead, townsite, coal and mineral land laws … "

    In 1906 a group of men then living in Shoshoni established a company which applied to the U.S. government for the right to establish a town on the site where Riverton is now located. That site was part of the lands ceded by the tribes to the U.S. government in the I904 agreement.

    The government approved the townsite application, and the company proceeded to survey the townsite and to allocate town lots under the government-approved system of squatters rights.

    Nothing — absolutely nothing — in the agreement, the congressional act, or the Riverton townsite documents makes any reference to a lease.

    For the members of the Riverton Museum Association,

    Tess Piercy

    Riverton

  17. Tania Bernard-O'Neal

    UM, w/o most of 'tribal' support (most tribal memebers SHOP local!!!) … there wouldn't BE much of anything for the 'big cities' here….and yes, the ORGINAL REZ encompassed MOST of WY, parts of ID, CO, UT, and NB…

  18. Drew Lee

    Show the proof don't just make unsubstantiated claims.

  19. Nancy Ebbert

    Cathi Stoecklin Finch: My sources are numerous but you can begin with the Salt Lake Tribune as well as AP news sources. It has gained national notoriety though it is unlikely Faux News will mention it.

  20. Catlin Teton

    Treat him like Russian prez putin!no more meetings to that riverton mayor as well as his followers

  21. Melody Bearsbackbone

    Misinformation? Warpness get you head out of where the sun don't shine. The very flyer promoting the meeting prohibits the general public and reporters from attending. Listen to your Chief of Police. Don't bring more problems to an already controversial situation.

  22. Mel Arthur

    Randy Ray-What treaty of 1906 are you referencing? For the most part treaties ended in 1868, in 1871 congress stripped the President of the United States from directly making treaties with American Indians (http://www.princeton.edu/~pcglobal/conferences/methods/papers/Spirling.pdf). You are gong to have to be more clear. The state of Wyoming has already committed to the Treaty of 1868 in the Big Horn Water Rights Cases, so I do not think that they can actually go in and argue a totally different treaty, but I do not believe that will be germane in this situation. I cannot actually say that I have read of the Treaty of 1906, so it will be an interesting read.

    Randy, I think we can both really agree to disagree, but the plain truth is the situation in the community is not only a political, but it a social quagmire, and what you see as a land dispute, I see as a perpetuation of the political and social genocidal tendencies that Arapaho and Shoshone people have dealt with. I know you see your side of the situation, but can you actually get a glimpse of the Northern Arapaho and Eastern Shoshone perspective. The mortality rate is staggering on the reservation where tribal members will be lucky to reach 50 years of age (http://www.nytimes.com/slideshow/2012/01/26/us/INDIAN-3.html) and non-Natives still believe we deserve poor health and poverty. In Wyoming American Indian children are twice more likely to die than white children age 1-17, they also lead in all risk factors by race including being ten times more likely to be overweight or obese (State of Wyoming Department of Health, 2012). Would the city of Riverton tolerate this kind of statistic? I would actually just like to see tribal members more healthy and would personally trade all the land north of the Big Wind for health statistics that most Americans experience. Mayor Warpness, called the situation a war or debate, what do you want?
    Have a good day.

  23. Randy Ray

    Mel, this is a case of looking at one thing through different pairs of eyes. I like you wish no war as we have enough in this world. I do see parts from the native perspective. I also see that in life you cannot depend on anyone to do for you.The modern city of Riverton was founded in 1906 during the land rush to settle acreage withdrawn by a treaty from the Wind River Indian Reservation. Totally insular within the reservation. I hope this clarifies your question as to what treaty of 1906.
    As for the health of native Americans, I have had the opportunity to work in the medical and mental health field for some years. Diabetes is extreme to say the least. Why is that? There are better beverages than alcohol or pop to drink. Eating habits are very poor also. There are better foods than candy or fast food. You cannot blame these faults on anyone except yourselves. There is education to teach how to live healthy but like the old saying goes, " you can lead a horse to water but cannot make them drink it."
    As for poverty. Again, there is education and most importantly, desire/ imagination to create a better life. Why is the graduation rate so low? As for indian children. I will not say much as I have seen too much working in the mental health field and I would be crossing legal lines.
    I find it odd though you being a research assistant at the UW and you ask me what is the treaty of 1906. Don't you have access to the information?

  24. Cathi Stoecklin Finch

    Since you stated the information, you need to give the direct source itself, not "general ones" such as Salt Lake Tribune and AP.

  25. Cathi Stoecklin Finch

    When did the Northern Arapaho Tribe become "residents" of the Wind Riverton Indian Reservation? Originally, the reservation belonged to the Eastern Shoshone Tribe, correct?

  26. Randy Ray

    The Wind River Indian Reservation was established for the Eastern Shoshone Indians in 1868. Camp Auger, a military post with troops, was established at the present site of Lander on June 28, 1869. In 1870 the name was changed to Camp Brown and in 1871 the post was moved to the current site of Fort Washakie. The nickname was changed to honor the Shoshone Chief Washakie in 1878 and continued to serve as a military post until its abandonment in 1909.[2] A government school and hospital functioned for many years east of Fort Washakie and children were sent here to board during the school year. St. Michael's at Ethete was constructed in 1917-20. The village of Arapahoe was originally established as a sub-agency to distribute rations to the Arapaho and at one time had a large trading post. In 1906 a portion of the reservation was ceded to white settlement and Riverton evolved on some of this land. Lands were allotted in the 19th century to the various families and names were anglicized. Irrigation was brought in to develop farming and ranching and a flour mill constructed near Fort Washakie.[2]

    On December 19th 2013, the EPA issued a decision granting environmental enforcement jurisdiction to the reservation authorities. The tribe later publicly asserted other jurisdictional rights in the areas diminished by the 1906 agreement. On January 6th 2014, the state issued a petition for stay and reconsideration of the environmental protection agency's decision. [3]

    Of the population in 2011, 8,177 were Arapaho and 3,737 were Shoshone on 1,880,000 acres of Tribal Land with 180,387 acres of Wilderness area,[4][5] compared to the population in 2000, 6,728 (28.9%) were Native Americans (full or part) and of them 54% were Arapaho and 30% Shoshone. Of the Native American population, 22% spoke a language other than English at home. Sacagawea's burial was located here. Her son Jean Baptiste Charbonneau has a memorial stone in Fort Washakie but is buried in Danner, Oregon.

  27. Randy Ray

    The above was taken from Wikipedia

  28. Nancy Ebbert

    General? Seems you are trolling or can't bother to get the information for yourself.

  29. Cathi Stoecklin Finch

    If you cannot give the source, why bother to give the information and be asked? How do you figure that I would find the exact source that you have given?

  30. Cathi Stoecklin Finch

    Mel Arthur, you give much information, but do not give your source for above. As UW Research Assistant, you know how is important. I am checking your sources given in another reply below. Thanks.

  31. Nancy Ebbert

    Google: Infants dying in Uintah Basin of Utah. See what comes up. There are many articles to choose from and more coverage on the way.

  32. Cathi Stoecklin Finch

    Along with slide show from NYT above, article: "Brutal Crimes Grip an Indian Reservation": http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/03/us/wind-river-indian-reservation-where-brutality-is-banal.html

  33. Bo Didly

    Melody, where is the misinformation in his comment?

  34. Bo Didly

    Please explain.

  35. Mel Arthur

    Randy Ray it sounds like there are a couple of things that you do not understand.
    First the entire food system in America is "unjust" because healthy food is expensive and unhealthy processed food is cheap and easily accessible. This means that it is more profitable to sell cheap unhealthy food and stores become stocked with items that lead to health disparities. You cannot blame people for health problems that occur because of an unhealthy food system, it is up to the retailers and the beliefs of society, especially when unconsciousness citizens tend to put the blame on the individual who has been victimized. Unscrupulous retailers will sell unhealthy items to people who really have no other choice but to buy the unhealthy items. A good example are the alcohol sales in Riverton where the citizens have seen and complained endlessly on its effects, BUT continue to sell alcohol in its city. It is the same situation with food, because the reservation is basically a food desert and tribal members have to drive extensive miles to purchase cheap and unhealthy food. You probably know where your next meal is coming from, but people especially children and elders, they do not have this luxury on the reservation. I want to help in creating a reservation that is sovereign in its own economy with an infrastructure that provides healthy and affordable alternatives.
    Second, you do not have to question my skills as a researcher, they actually do not let you get this far in graduate school if you don't know what you're doing. I have read everything thing I could find on the Arapaho people and the Wind River Indian Reservation and it is really seems more controversial and up in the air than you make it out to be, and I am not only talking about the city of Riverton, I am talking about all the land North of the Big Wind River. Do you honestly believe that non-Natives have entitlement to all the land North of the of the Big Wind, was this included in your treaty of 1906? I know all about the BLM, but it seems that encroachment is a thing that has been brushed under the table, I was very applauded that one of my family members was pulled over by a highway patrol near Midvale and the officer told her she was a long way away from the reservation. Can you explain that one to me? When your leaving Shoshone there is a sign that says that are entering the Wind River Indian Reservation, just like the south entrance, where the county put its dump sight off the reservation. Some things just don't make sense when it comes to protecting resources.

  36. Cathi Stoecklin Finch

    Interesting, follow-up of Nancy Ebbert, commentary:
    "Is air pollution causing Vernal’s neonatal deaths to rise?"
    Utah midwife uses obituaries to document troubling trend in birth outcomes in the area.
    By Kirsten Stewart, Brian Maffly, The Salt Lake Tribune
    First Published May 07 2014 12:25 pm • Last Updated May 08 2014 03:40 pm
    —Now the local health department, with guidance from the state epidemiologist, is investigating whether poor birth outcomes are on the rise in Uintah County, which is experiencing a massive expansion in oil and gas development. The health department study was the subject of a meeting Wednesday evening where elected leaders and public health officials sought to define its scope.
    —"This is not an air quality study. This is not a water quality study," stressed Joseph Shaffer, director of the TriCounty Health Department. "We are examining the infant mortality rate in the basin to see if it’s any different than anywhere else. If it is, then we’ll talk about exploring why."
    —Details will be fine-tuned over the coming weeks.
    http://www.sltrib.com/sltrib/news/57914660-78/basin-birth-deaths-department.html.csp

  37. Randy Ray

    I understand a lot of things Mel. If you CHOOSE to eat unhealthy, you become unhealthy. If you CHOOSE to drink alcohol in extreme amounts constantly, you become unhealthy. The key word is CHOOSE. Noone forces anyone to make poor choices. Every economic situation can be overcome if you make the right choices. Excuses no longer work in this day and age. If a person wants to do right, they have the tools available . I am sorry your family member had to go through what they did but you know, it happens to EVERYONE. I myself have long hair and do not dress to others expectations and get the same treatment but I don't make an issue of it. In fact, I thank them for recognizing I am different.
    It is easier to be "lazy" and not do for themselves than it is to stand up and say I will better myself.
    Words come a dime a dozen, actions are what creates.

  38. Cathi Stoecklin Finch

    Mel Arthur "Second, you do not have to question my skills as a researcher, they actually do not let you get this far in graduate school if you don't know what you're doing." What department at UW are you employed as researcher? Have checked UWY faculty and your name is not listed.

  39. Cathi Stoecklin Finch

    Randy Ray Two older but noted nonfiction books on both Arapahoes and The Shoshonis written by historian Virginia Cole Trenholm. Worth checking out.

  40. Randy Ray

    Thank you Cathi for the book information. I have a endless desire to educate myself about my surroundings and I am sure those titles will help.
    I myself have had the notion that the total truth was not being told as I, like you, checked the staff roster at UW to no avail. If people would spend half the energy trying to better their lives as the use making excuses, what a beautiful world we would have.

  41. Cathi Stoecklin Finch

    Thanks! I began reading about Native Americans eons ago when "Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee" hit the best sellers' list. Wet my appetite for more so read Utley, Alvin Josephy, more of Dee Brown books. As well, have general, overall references. Have a great-grandmother that was said to be Cherokee and have spent years trying to back-track. Adopted through Catholic Charities in St. Louis is as far as I get. No last name and adoption records nonexistent or incomplete for circa 1968 or so.

  42. Randy Ray

    FortWayne Indiana has one of the best genealogy research facilities in the country at the library there. It costs to join but the information is endless. My sister has been researching our family for quite some time as we have Cherokee blood lines also. Good luck on your mission.

  43. Cathi Stoecklin Finch

    THE RIVERTON RANGER, March 13, 2014
    https://dailyranger.com/story.php?story_id=11765&headline=Language-is-clear;-Riverton-townsite-was-removed-from-the-reservation,-with-no-lease
    "Language is clear; Riverton townsite was removed from the reservation, with no lease"
    Mar 13, 2014 – Tess Piercy, Riverton
    —Editor:
    –The recent letter to the editor about a lease of the Riverton tons requires a factual response.
    –Apparently, there are area residents who continue to want to believe that there was a 99-year lease by which the tribes of the Wind River Indian Reservation allowed the establishment of the municipality of Riverton, and that the lease has now expired.
    –But, in fact, there never was such a lease.
    –In 1904, representatives of the U.S. government met with representatives of the two tribes and negotiated an agreement by which the tribes disposed of lands north of Wind River that had been a part of the reservation. The agreement was approved by a majority of the voting male tribal members on the reservation. The agreement was forwarded to Washington, D.C., where it was ratified by the U.S. Congress in 1905.
    –Both the agreement and the act as approved by Congress state:
    "The Indians belonging on the Shoshone or Wind River Reservation, Wyoming, for the consideration hereinafter named, do hereby cede, grant, and relinquish to the United States, all right, title and interest which they may have to all lands embraced within the said reservation [which lie north of the Wind River] … . In consideration of the lands ceded, granted, relinquished, and conveyed … the United States stipulates and agrees to dispose of the same … under the provisions of the homestead, townsite, coal and mineral land laws … "
    –In 1906 a group of men then living in Shoshoni established a company which applied to the U.S. government for the right to establish a town on the site where Riverton is now located. That site was part of the lands ceded by the tribes to the U.S. government in the I904 agreement.
    –The government approved the townsite application, and the company proceeded to survey the townsite and to allocate town lots under the government-approved system of squatters rights.
    –Nothing — absolutely nothing — in the agreement, the congressional act, or the Riverton townsite documents makes any reference to a lease.
    ——For the members of the Riverton Museum Association,
    ——Tess Piercy, Riverton

  44. Mel Arthur

    Cathi Stoecklin Finch, obviously did not check human resources.

  45. Cathi Stoecklin Finch

    Check Article: http://www.sfgate.com/news/science/article/Wind-River-boundary-dispute-attracts-group-534855.php
    —–"Wind River boundary dispute attracts group"—
    By BEN NEARY, Associated Press
    Updated 6:26 pm, Friday, June 6, 2014
    CHEYENNE, Wyo. (AP) — A dispute over a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency decision saying that lands around Riverton are legally Indian Country has spurred a national group to hold a conference there despite objections from the Northern Arapaho Tribe.
    —The Citizens Equal Rights Alliance, which is dedicated to ending tribal sovereignty, plans to hold a public workshop at Riverton City Hall on June 13 and a conference June 14 at the Fremont County Fairgrounds.
    —Alliance Board member Elaine Willman of Green Bay, Wisconsin, said Friday that no government agency is sponsoring her group's conference. She said it will focus on what the alliance sees as over-reaching by the federal government.
    —"There was a time, during the 1800s and first 20 years of the 1900s, where there was an appropriate and legitimate need for federal Indian policy," Willman said Friday in a telephone interview. "That has long since passed. And we find that the distinction that creates dual citizenship, and that creates some citizens as treated differently from other citizens is a real violation of the 14th Amendment, so yes, we do oppose federal Indian policy."
    (Check above website for entirety.)

  46. Melody Bearsbackbone

    @Warpness….Discussion? More like getting ideas in regards to developing a strategy against the Northern Arapaho an Eastern Shoshone Nations. CERA is the equivalent to Native Americans, as the KKK is to the African American. I will be at the open public meeting with CERA.

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